Sunday, August 23, 2020
Question: Examine about theHuman Resource Managementfor Finance Department. Answer: Reaction The human asset division consistently follows a witticism of individuals being the benefit of the organization and account office follows an aphorism of money is above all else. (Boustanifar et al. 2015) HR supervisors have thought that it was hard to figure the arrival on speculation from the preparation program gave to the workers. Then again account supervisors take help of the HR to know the abilities of the workforce and appointing undertakings to them (Carrizales and Gaynor 2013). CFOs essential spotlight lies on the venture made on human capital which can affect the benefit of the organization (Carrizales and Gaynor 2013). HR worries about help and consistence. The organizations remember HR supervisors for the vital administration endeavors (Boustanifar et al. 2015). HR chiefs make the formative spending plans. The HR needs to give the preparation, choice and motivating forces to the representatives for their work which is identified with fund and the pay rates gave to the workers likewise incorporates a ton of computation and are determined by HR directors. For instance when the HR supervisor needs to dispatch a strategy concerning that the cost must be defended with respect to what cost the organization can hold up under for the arrangement and the HR ought to compose a proposition to the head (Carrizales and Gaynor 2013). The bookkeeping and account enables a HR to become OK with the numbers For instance if a retail location recoils in benefit there might be a need to update the degree of staffing, creating preparing programs and presenting new motivating forces for the representatives (Boustanifar et al. 2015). Reference: Boustanifar, H., Grant, E. also, Reshef, A., 2015. Wages and human capital in fund: universal proof, 1970-2005.Available at SSRN 2518277. Carrizales, T. also, Gaynor, T.S., 2013. Decent variety in Public Administration Research: A Review of Journal Publications.Public Administration Quarterly, pp.306-330.
Friday, August 21, 2020
What happens when societyÃ¢â¬â¢s most prominent love turns into a definitive danger? A couple of years back Neil Postman composed an introduction about the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s impacts in which he recommends that Aldous HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s forecasts in Brave New World happen. Mailman repeated HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s focuses saying that our general public may in the long run transform into a variant of Brave New World. Some may contend that PostmanÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis is mistaken yet with further thought it is bound to be valid. In Aldous HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Brave New World highlights Bernard Marx who addresses the parts of the general public that he lives in. His general public is controlled through satisfaction; he endeavors to change the way of life however regardless of his endeavors to revolt he fizzles. Subsequently, strengthening HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s prescience. Mailman and Huxley uncover three striking equals to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. In the first place, delight is seen more significant than co nnections. Additionally, drugs cloud oneÃ¢â¬â¢s reality and at last reason one to turn into a captive to drugs. Ultimately, depending on innovation makes one penance freedom, which gives governments more control. Huxley fears that the things development adores will demolish progress; his dread may before long become reality. Right off the bat, enjoying prurient exercises is probably the best shortcoming of humankind. In HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Brave New World, joy is utilized to control society. The pioneer, Mustapha Mond, knows by giving extreme joy he can control the general people. In this manner, Mond has the general public spun around joy. He makes a platitude, Ã¢â¬Å"everybody has a place with everybody elseÃ¢â¬ , this saying makes balance so everybody one will be pleasured. He has youngsters presented to sexual joy at a youthful age, ladies are depicted as items, and he demolished the family. The standard of ... ...pondences to the present society of today. Fundamentally, connections are outdated in light of the fact that joy is viewed as progressively significant. Moreover, drugs mutilate reality at last making one be detained to opiates. In conclusion, as innovation propels, governments secure more power over society. Mailman and Huxley are on the whole correct to expect that what mankind adores will destroy human advancement; Ã¢â¬Å"For the adoration for [power] is the base of all evil.Ã¢â¬ 1 Timothy 6:10. Works Cited Huxley, Aldous . Exciting modern lifestyle. Incredible Britain: Vintage Canada, 1932. Print. The Holy Bible ESV: English Standard Version : containing the Old and New Testaments.. 2001. Reproduce. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Bibles, 2007. Print. Not, Available. Liquor Statistics. Drug Rehab Alcohol Drug Rehabilitation Addiction Treatment Programs. N.p., 3 June 2012. .
Tuesday, July 7, 2020
Microbiology: Key Exploration on the Natural Chemistry, Physiology (Research Paper Sample) Content: MicrobiologyStudent NameInstitutionIntroductionMicrobiology is the study of minute organisms, for example, microorganisms, infections, archaea, organisms and protozoa. This order incorporates key exploration on the natural chemistry, physiology, cell science, environment, development and clinical parts of microorganisms, including the host reaction to these operators. The following are methods used to study microbiology; inoculation, incubation, isolation, inspection and identification.Methods of studyInoculation is the demonstration or procedure of acquainting something with where it will develop or repeat. It is most usually utilized as a part of admiration of the presentation of a serum, immunization, or antigenic substance into the body of a human or creature, particularly to deliver or help safety to a specific infection.Incubation, is the process of developing and keeping up microbiological societies or cell societies by the use of the incubator. It maintains op timal temperature, humidity and other conditions such as the carbon dioxide and oxygen content of the atmosphere inside.Isolation alludes to the detachment of a strain from a characteristic, blended populace of living organisms, as present in the earth, for instance in water or soil verdure, or from living creatures with skin greenery, oral vegetation or gut verdure, keeping in mind the end goal to recognize the microbes of interest. Generally, the research facility systems of segregation initially created in the field of bacteriology and parasitologyInspection the demonstration of taking a look at microorganisms nearly with a specific end goal to take in more about it, to discover any unusual thing.Identification gives the name of the living being to class or species level, which can help in figuring out if it is a security or decay concern or is prone to be warmth safe, for example, characterization of microorganisms that is writing this gatherings together life forms that offer c omparative DNA part designs or antigenic profiles, to help with following or following defilement.ConclusionFrom the exchange above, it must be bounteously clear that microbiology has turned out to be progressively imperative to human culture. It has risen as a standout amongst the most vital branches of life sciences. As microorganisms essentially influence all exercises of our life like, nourishment, attire, cover, wellbeing cleanliness and so forth, so likewise microbiology has made endless...
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
The mail delivery video demonstrates various business terms through the usage of a slightly exaggerated real life example. A handful of the topics discussed in the video include corporate culture, incentives, business ethics, and goals. Upon analyzing the numerous topics one is able to not only understand the operation of a business, but also derive a personal management style. Moreover, by utilizing your management style one is able to solve several issues in the corporate structure. Throughout the Seinfeld episode the actions of Jerry and Newman evidently illustrate the impact of corporate structure on the work ethic of employees. For example, during one scene in the episode Newman is not awarded the transfer to Hawaii, and in response decides to Ã¢â¬Å"give upÃ¢â¬ . The mere fact that Newman lacked the desire to try harder demonstrates the skewed corporate culture of the Post Office. Corporate culture as discussed in class is a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs, as well as actions, that determine the interaction of management towards outsiders and fellow employees. The actions of Newman illustrates the impact of a corporation culture, and management style on their workers. The corporate culture portrayed in the incentives video can be characterized as unmotivated, and as a manager there are several ways of addressing such an issue. My personal management style is rather strict, goal oriented, and aimed at satisfying consumer expectations. For this reason had I been manager I would of notShow MoreRelatedOrganizational Culture : Business Practices1011 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Does Organisational Culture Shape Ethical Business Practices? U5009333 Sarah Zuiderduin 14/10/2014 Ã¢â¬Æ' Introduction Organisation culture can be described as the beliefs, customs, value systems and behavioural norms and ways of doing business that are unique to each corporation. The impact of organisational culture on the ethical standards and moral practices of people in organisations has become increasingly common (Fisse Braithwaite, 1983). Managers within organisationsRead MoreThe Five Business Ethics Myths Essay879 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCommon Ethics Misconceptions Trevino Brown (2004) in Academy of Management Executives talked about the five business ethics myths. 1. It is easy to be ethical 2. Unethical behavior in business results from bad people 3. A formal code of ethics is the easiest way to manage them 4. Principled leadership revolves around your leaders 5. At one time, people appeared to be more ethical Pundits and business leaders say being ethical is straightforward when being ethical is complexRead MoreBusiness Values And Ethics Differ With Every Company Essay953 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBusiness values and ethics differ with every company. They are formed by the behaviors and good ethics that is required in a professional environment. Values. Company values are used to guide and inspire individuals within a business in order to help them make appropriate decisions that align with companyÃ¢â¬â¢s principles and policies and business practices within its industry. Strategic management is important to understand the position of the organization. It allows the company to accomplish goalsRead MoreBenefits Of Ethical Leadership : A Positive Corporate Reputation, Ethically Empowered Employees, Increased Quality, And Higher1734 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesleadership; having a positive corporate reputation, ethically empowered employees, increased quality, and higher customer satisfaction. Ethical leadership will benefit an organization, because it creates a healthy ethical environment, and culture which produces a positive corporate reputation. This will foster employees that; appreciate that ethics is important, recognizes and discusses ethical concerns, works to resolve ethics issues at the lowest level, sees ethics as part of quality, understandsRead MoreAnalysis Of Macy s Inc.1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesExamine Expectation At MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s Inc. they have a corporate vision and a corporate philosophy. Their corporate vision is Ã¢â¬Å"MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s, Inc. is a premier national omni-channel retailer with iconic brands that serve customers through outstanding stores and dynamic online sites. Both MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s and BloomingdaleÃ¢â¬â¢s are known worldwide, and each has its own unique identity and customer focus.Ã¢â¬ Their corporate philosophy is as follows, Ã¢â¬Å"MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s, Inc. clearly recognizes that the customer is paramount and that all actionsRead MoreIncentive Plan For An Organization Essay1678 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Incentives Every organization should have some type of incentive plan for staff. As previously mentioned, it is important to keep staff motivated to edify the success of an organization. Motivation and incentive concepts are closely linked because they both encourage staff to perform in a better way. The difference is that motivation can be words, but incentives are typically tangible and specific. According to the Houston Chronicle, incentive plans offer recognition and rewards to employees forRead MoreFinancial Management And Corporate Social Responsibility1216 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction With constant changes in the business world these days as well as the significant growth of organization, there are such key concerns on not only the issue of financial management or corporate social responsibility, but also the importance of ethics and governance, in which how an organization manages its business acting in the best interests of public and stakeholders. Indeed, there has been several of the failure of governance, fraud or bankrupt of large scale organizations in recentRead MoreEnterprise Rent A Car : Sustaining Organizational Learning And A Strong Culture1526 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSomma Harris Corporate Culture and Organization Enterprise Rent-a-Car: Sustaining Organizational Learning and a Strong Culture Organizational learning helps companies to maintain adaptability and flexibility in the modern business world. A strong culture teaches employees values, views, purpose, belonging, and sense of identity, Enterprise Rent-a-Car strong culture has held the organization together and motivated their employees to do the right thing rather than what is easy. They believe thatRead MoreTransparency in Corporate Governance1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRunning head: TRANSPARENCY IN CORPIRATE GOVERNANCE McBride Financial Services - Transparency in Corporate Governance University of Phoenix May 4, 2009 Transparency is imperative with respect to corporate governance due to the crucial nature of reporting financial information to maintaining investor and consumer confidence. The lack of devotion to corporate governance policies will send the message that the company is unbalanced and the leadership is not incorporating the highest level of integrityRead MoreZappos : Delivering Consumer Satisfaction882 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstructure, its core values, business ethics, style and goals are cutting-edge. Ferrell, O., Fraedrich, J., Ferrell, L. (2013). Explained, Ã¢â¬Å"Providing the absolute best customer service online not just in shoes, but also in any categoryÃ¢â¬ (p.478). Zappos believes the company success originates from its business ethics. Much of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s principal are focused on consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfaction. This ethic facilitated in constructing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation and core values. In business, ethics refers to the principles
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Amanda Fraistat Claudia Vizcarra/ B02 Assignment #4 9 March 2015 Comply or Die!: The Jacobins Most Effective Propaganda Tool during the French Revolution The French Revolution pitted the Monarchy against the Revolutionaries in a power struggle, but even within the RevolutionaryÃ¢â¬â¢s group, there were several subgroups vying for power such as, the Girondists (Girondins?) and the Jacobins. The Girondists were the moderate political party and wanted limited democracy for Revolutionary France, whereas, the Jacobins were the radical party that wanted pure democracy for France (Gallant 123) [cite this way?]. Both groups, however, wanted freedom from the dictatorial rule of the Monarchy and the Estate System (capitalized?) that controlled France before the Revolution took place. The Estate System split the citizens of France into three different groups: the First Estate with 10,000 people and the most power, the Second Estate with 400,000 people and moderate power, and the Third Estate with 25 million people and the least power. (Gallant 111) The unf air burdens placed upon the citizens of the Third Estate soon led to the French Revolution in July of 1789, in which democracy and equal rights were sought. At first the Girondists won the governmental spot, but this power struggle eventually led to the Jacobins to gain leadership from 1793-1794. During their short but impactful rule, there were several different types of propaganda that the Jacobins used as political policies toShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Extent of American Unity and Identity1339 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesless time to reach Savannah than a letter from Massachusetts. However, after the French and Indian War a sense of unity began to permeate through the colonies as a result of British acts. For every British action there was an American reaction, which fed the spirit of a new identity as Americans, not English colonists. The American identity was being established in the years before the revolution, but it was not the majority as some colonists stayed loyal to the King. Events Read MoreThe Importance Of Nationalism1434 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbelonging and identity. Nationalism has been one of the most influential and powerful forces of the twentieth century because nationalism helps bring people together that share a similar language, territory, and culture. It can be a powerful and effective ideology of a country depending on how leaders chose to use it however, nationalism is controversial among many states and nations and has been interlined with negative associations. Nationalism can create hatred and inequality among members of aRead MorePropaganda Effects of World War One Essay examples3323 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pages Propaganda effects of World War I During the early 1900s a new era of warfare emerged as governments began to employ all economic, technological and psychological resources available to defeat their enemies. This concept of Total War altered the direction of humanity and governments understanding in their allocation of resources. This essay will examine the relationship between propaganda used during World War I, its effect on the masses and the absolutely essential need for the success of suchRead MorePropaganda Effects of Wwi3372 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesPropaganda effects of World War I During the early 1900s a new era of warfare emerged as governments began to employ all economic, technological and psychological resources available to defeat their enemies. This concept of Total War altered the direction of humanity and governments understanding in their allocation of resources. This essay will examine the relationship between propaganda used during World War I, its effect on the masses and the absolutely essential need for the success of suchRead MoreNAPOLEONÃ¢â¬â¢S INFLUENCE ON MODERN WESTERN MILITARY ARMIES Essay1867 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesinfluential with the development of modern day Western armies. According to Knox, Ã¢â¬Å"military revolutions are changes in the nature and purpose of war itself.Ã¢â¬ 1 Napoleons military tactics and strategy have revolutionized European warfare during the 1800s. His use of nationalism, military organizational structure, and combined arms were key factors that helped his juggernaut army conquer most of Europe. The French sys tem led the way for Europes military modernization and is modeled by the modern day URead MoreHow did Hitler rise to power (1933) and consolidate his power (1934)2078 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pageschancellorship in 1933 there was a series of events that helped Hitler gain the support of the German public. One of which was the hyperinflation in 1923 caused by the French invasion of the Ruhr turned Germany into a crisis state. The German population were very displeased with the Republic because they felt that the democracy were taking no effective action to better the economical situation in Germany. The Germans were in desperate need of a leader, a so-called Ã¢â¬Å"strong manÃ¢â¬ to make solid decisions. In 1924Read MoreLev Vladimirovich Kuleshov and The Moscow Film School Essay918 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageslust or love. This is order to show how editing changes viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretations of images and how film uses psychology. Kulsehov experimented with this and achieved the Kulsehov th eory. This technique is known as juxtaposition, one the most effective tools on cinema just by juxtaposing a variety of concepts one can get a funny joke across, or complete lie across the audience. Kuleshov coined the term collective geography to describe cinema ability to link entirely unrelated material into coherentRead MoreThe Vietnam War and its Subsequent Ties to the Cold War Essay2491 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesfrom the moment after the Democratic Republic of Vietnam was recognized by communist powers China and Soviet Union and AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s subsequent direct intervention in the war in Vietnam that the Vietnam War was no longer a nationalist fight against the French colonialistsÃ¢â¬â¢ re-conquest, but had become a part of the Cold War. The Vietnam War started off as a nationalist struggle before turning into a class struggle as foreign powers became involved in the war. However, it is the view of many VietnameseRead More Myth of Propaganda in the Balkans and Rwanda Essay6707 Words Ã |Ã 27 PagesMass Manipulation and Genocide: The Myth of Propaganda in the Balkans and Rwanda War and conquest have been among the most enduring traits of humankind throughout the ages. While we would all like to believe that we are, by nature, a peaceful species, we still understand there are some things worth fighting for, and given the appropriate context, there are some things worth killing for. As reasoning beings, we hope that if violence is the only option it is for a clear and legitimate purpose.Read MoreThe Beginning Of The Xx2689 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesreforms has changed the role of people from the subjects to the nation in Iran. However, the emergence and viability of anti-colonial nationalist identity required the complex and long-term responses through education, patriotism and the increase in propaganda. 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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Traditional education, also known as back-to-basics, conventional education or customary education, refers to long-established customs found in schools that society has traditionally deemed appropriate. Some forms of education reform promote the adoption of progressive education practices, a more holistic approach which focuses on individual students needs and self-expression. In the eyes of reformers, traditional teacher-centered methods focused on rote learning and memorization must be abandoned in favor of student-centered and task-based approaches to learning. However, many parents and conservative citizens are concerned with the maintenance of objective educational standards based on testing, which favors a more traditional approach. Depending on the context, the opposite of traditional education may be progressive education, modern education (the education approaches based on developmental psychology), or alternative education.  Contents * 1 Definition * 2 Instruction Centre * 3 Marking * 4 Subject Areas * 5 Criticism of the concept of teaching in traditional education| Definition The definition of traditional education varies greatly with geography and by historical period. The chief business of traditional education is to transmit to a next generation those skills, facts, and standards of moral and social conduct that adults deem to be necessary for the next generations material and social success.  As beneficiaries of this scheme, which educational progressivist John Dewey described as being imposed from above and from outside, the students are expected to docilely and obediently receive and believe these fixed answers. Teachers are the instruments by which this knowledge is communicated and these standards of behavior are enforced.  Historically, the primary educational technique of traditional education was simple oral recitation: In a typical approach, students sat quietly at their places and listened to one student after another recite his or her lesson, until each had been called upon. The teachers primary activity was assigning and listening to these recitations; students studied and memorized the assignments at home. A test r oral examination might be given at the end of a unit, and the process, which was called assignment-study-recitation-test, was repeated. In addition to its overemphasis on verbal answers, reliance on rote memorization (memorization with no effort at understanding the meaning), and disconnected, unrelated assignments, it was also an extremely inefficient use of students and teachers time. This traditional approach also insisted that all students be taught the same ma terials at the same point; students that did not learn quickly enough failed, rather than being allowed to succeed at their natural speeds. This approach, which had been imported from Europe, dominated American education until the end of the 19th century, when the education reform movement imported progressive education techniques from Europe.  Traditional education is associated with much stronger elements of coercion than seems acceptable now in most cultures.  It has sometimes included: the use of corporal punishment to maintain classroom discipline or punish errors; inculcating the dominant religion and language; separating students according to gender, race, and social class, as well as teaching different subjects to girls and boys. In terms of curriculum there was and still is a high level of attention paid to time-honoured academic knowledge. In the present it varies enormously from culture to culture, but still tends to be characterised by a much higher level of coercion than alternative education. Traditional schooling in Britain and its possessions and former colonies tends to follow the English Public School style of strictly enforced uniforms and a militaristic style of discipline. This can be contrasted with South African, USA and Australian schools, which can have a much higher tolerance for spontaneous student-to-teacher communication. citation needed] Instruction Centre | | Topic| Traditional approach| Alternate approaches| Person| Teacher-centred instruction: * Educational essentialism * Educational perennialism| Student-centred instruction: * Educational progressivism| Classroom| Students matched by age, and possibly also by ability. All students in a classroom are taught the same material. | Studen ts dynamically grouped by interest or ability for each project or subject, with the possibility of different groups each hour of the day. Multi-age classrooms or open classrooms. | Teaching methods| Traditional education emphasizes: * Direct instruction and lectures * Seatwork * Students learn through listening and observation| Progressive education emphasizes: * Hands-on activities * Student-led discovery * Group activities| Materials| Instruction based on textbooks, lectures, and individual written assignments| Project-based instruction using any available resource including Internet, library and outside experts| Subjects| Individual, independent subjects. Little connection between topics| Integrated, interdisciplinary subjects or theme-based units, such as reading a story about cooking a meal and calculating the cost of the food. | Social aspects| Little or no attention to social development.  Focus on independent learning. Socializing largely discouraged except for extracurricular activities and teamwork-based projects. | Significant attention to social development, including teamwork, interpersonal relationships, and self-awareness. | Multiple tracks| * A single, unified curriculum for all students, regardless of ability or interest. Diverse class offerings without tracking, so that students receive a custom-tailored education. * With School to work, academically weak students must take some advanced classes, while the college bound may have to spend half-days job shadowing at local businesses. | Students choose (or are steered towards) different kinds of classes according to their perceived abilities or career plans. Decision s made early in education may preclude changes later, as a student on a vo-tech track may not have completed necessary prerequisite classes to switch to a university-preparation program. Student and teacher relationship| Students often address teachers formally by their last names. The teacher is considered a respected role model in the community. Students should obey the teacher. Proper behavior for the university or professional work community is emphasized. | In alternative schools, students may be allowed to call teachers by their first names. Students and teachers may work together as collaborators. | Marking Topic| Traditional approach| Alternate approaches| Communicating with parents| A few numbers, letters, or words are used to summarize overall achievement in each class. Marks may be assigned according to objective individual performance (usually the number of correct answers) or compared to other students (best students get the best grades, worst students get poor grades). A passing grade may or may not signify mastery: a failing student may know the material but not complete homework assignments, and a passing student may turn in all homework but still not understand the material. | Many possible forms of communicating achievements: * Teachers may be required to write personalized narrative evaluations about student achievement and abilities. Under standards-based education, a government agency may require all students to pass a test; students who fail to perform adequately on the test may not be promoted. | Expectations| Students will graduate with different grades. Some students will fail due to poor performance based on a lack of understanding or incomplete assignments. | All students need to achieve a basic level of education, even if this mean s spending extra years in school. | Grade inflation/deflation| Achievement based on performance compared to a reasonably stable, probably informal standard which is highly similar to what previous students experienced. The value of any given mark is often hard to standardize in alternative grading schemes. Comparison of students in different classes may be difficult or impossible. | Subject Areas Topic| Traditional approach| Alternate approaches| Mathematics| Traditional mathematics: * Emphasis is on memorization of basic facts such as the multiplication table and mastering step-by-step arithmetic algorithms by studying examples and much practice. * One correct answer is sought, using one standard method. * Mathematics after elementary grades is tracked with different students covering different levels of material. Mathematics is taught as its own discipline without emphasis on social, political or global issues. There may be some emphasis on practical applications in science and te chnology. | * Curriculum de-emphasizes procedural knowledge drills in favor of technology (calculators, computers) and an emphasis on conceptual understanding. * Lessons may include more exploratory material supportive of conceptual understanding, rather than direct presentation of facts and methods. * Emphasis may be on practical applications and greater issues such as the environment, gender and racial diversity, and social justice. Mathematics lessons may include writing, drawing, games, and instruction with manipulatives rather than filling out worksheets.  * Lessons may include exploration of concepts allowing students to invent their own procedures before teaching standard algorithms. * Grading may be based on demonstration of conceptual understanding rather than entirely on whether the final answer is correct. * In some countries (e. g. the United States), there may be expectations of high achievement and mastering algebra for all students rather than tracking some student s into business math and others into mathematics for math and science careers. Science| Fact-based science: Science class is an opportunity to transmit concrete knowledge and specific vocabulary from the teacher (or textbook) to the students. Students focus on memorizing what they are told. Experiments follow cookbook-style procedures to produce the expected results. | With Inquiry-based Science a student might be asked to devise an experiment to demonstrate that the earth orbits the sun. The emphasis changes from memorizing information that was learned through a scientific method to actually using the scientific method of discovery. Language learning| Phonics: The focus is on explicit training in sound to letter correspondence rules and the mechanics of decoding individual words. Students initially focus on phonics subskills and reading simplified decodable texts. When they have mastered a sufficient number of rules, they are allowed to read freely and extensively. (In many languag es, such as French, Spanish and Greek, phonics is taught in the context of reading simple open syllables. )| With whole language the child is exposed to rich, relevant language that can heighten motivation to read. Learning to read is assumed to be as natural as learning to speak, so students are not formally taught sound to letter correspondences, but assumed to infer them on their own. (Note that this issue is limited to languages such as English and French with complex phonetics and spelling rules. Instruction in countries with languages such as Spanish and Greek, which have relatively simple phonetic spelling, still depends mainly on phonics. )| Criticism of the concept of teaching in traditional education Traditional education focuses on teaching, not learning. It incorrectly assumes that for every ounce of teaching there is an ounce of learning by those who are taught. However, most of what we learn before, during, and after attending schools is learned without it being taught to us. A child learns such fundamental things as how to walk, talk, eat, dress, and so on without being taught these things. Adults learn most of what they use at work or at leisure while at work or leisure. Critics argue that most of what is taught in classroom settings is forgotten, and much of what is remembered is irrelevant.
Wednesday, April 22, 2020
Volcano Mount Vesuvius Mount Vesuvius is a volcano located in southern Italy, near the bay of Naples and the city of Naples. It is the only active volcano on the European mainland. Vesuvius rises to a height of 1277 m (4190 ft). Vesuvio (Vesuvius) is probably the most famous volcano on earth, and is one of the most dangerous. Mount Vesuvius is a strato-volcano consisting of a volcanic cone (Gran Cono) that was built within a summit caldera (Mount Somma). The Somma-Vesuvius complex has formed over the last 25,000 years by means of a sequence of eruptions of variable explosiveness, ranging from the quiet lava outpourings that characterized much of the latest activity (for example from 1881 to 1899 and from 1926 to 1930) to the explosive Plinian eruptions, including the one that destroyed Pompeii and killed thousands of people in 79 A.D. At least seven Plinian eruptions have been identified in the eruptive history of Somma-Vesuvius (1). Each was preceded by a long period of stillness, which in the case of the 79 A.D. eruption lasted about 700 years. These eruptions were fed by viscous water-rich phonotitic to tephritic phonolitic magmas that appear to have differentiated in shallow crustal conditions. They are believed to have slowly filled a reservoir where differentiation was driven by compositional convection. A minimum depth of about 3 km was inferred for the top of the magmatic reservoir from mineral equilibria of metamorphic carbonate ejecta (2). Fluid inclusions ([CO.sub.2] and [H.sub.2]O-[CO.sub.2]) in clinopyroxenes from cumulate and nodules indicate a trapping pressure of 1.0 to 2.5 kbar at about 1200 [degrees]C, suggesting that these minerals crystallized at depths of 4 to 10 km (3). The differentiated magma fraction was about 30% of the total magma in the reservoir, and a volume of about 2 to 3 [km.sup.3] was inferred for the reservoir (4). The magma ascent to the surface occurred through a conduit of possibly 70 to 100 m in diameter (5). A thermal model predicts that such a reservoir should contain a core of partially molten magma (6) that can be detected by high-resolution seismic tomography. The earliest outcropping volcanic deposits date back to about 25,000 years ago. The lavas observed at a -1125 m bore-hole are about 0,3-0,5 million years old. It is known for the first eruption of which an eyewitness account is preserved, in 79 AD. Geologically, Vesuvio is unique for its unusual versatility. Its activity ranging from Hawaiian-style release of liquid lava, fountaining and lava lakes, over Strombolian and Vulcanian activity to violently explosive, plinian events that produce pyroclastic flows and surges. Vesuvius is a complex volcano. A complex volcano is "an extensive assemblage of spatially, temporally, and genetically related major and minor [volcanic] centers with there associated lava flows and pyroclastic flows." Vesuvius has a long history. The oldest dated rock from the volcano is about 300,000 years old. It was collected from a well drilled near the volcano and was probably part of the Somma volcano. After Somma collapsed about 17,000 years ago, Vesuvius began to form. Four types of eruption have been documented: a) Plinian (AD 79, Pompeii type) events with widespread air fall and major pyroclastic surges and flows; b) sub-Plinian to Plinian, more moderately sized eruptions (AD 472, 1631) with heavy tephra falls around the volcano and pyroclastic flows and surges; c) small to medium-sized, Strombolian to Vulcanian eruptions (numerous events during the 1631-1944 cycle, such as 1906 and 1944) with local heavy tephra falls and major lava flows and small pyroclastic avalanches restricted to the active cone itself. The fourth type it is the smallest of all eruption types observed at Vesuvio. It is the persistent Strombolian to Hawaiian style eruption that characterizes almost all of an eruptive sub-cycle, such as was the case during the period 1913-1944. Activity of this kind is mainly restricted to the central crater where one or more intracrateral cones form, and to the sides of the cone. Lava flows from the summit crater or from the sub terminal vents extend beyond the cone's base. A somewhat particular kind of persistent activity is the slow release of large amounts of lava from sub terminal fractures to form thick piles of lava with little lateral extension, such as the lava cupola of Colle Umberto, formed in 1895-1899. (7) Vesuvius lies over a subduction zone. The two plates are the African plate and the Eurasian plate. The African plate is moving northward at about one inch (2-3 cm) per year and is slowly closing the Mediterranean basin. As it moves to the north, the